Cold Joint

A discontinuity in the structure of concrete formed when a concrete surface cures or hardens before the next batch of concrete is placed.  This results in weakness in the concrete structure being formed unless special provisions have been made for the cold...


A projection jutting out from a wall to support a structure above it.


Colloquial term often used in describing a low spot in a horizontal section of sanitary drain line or vent line.  Low spots can trap water and solids leading to  drain clogs.

Rafter Tie

Where ceiling joists are not connected to the rafters at the top of the wall plate because they rest at a lower elevation, rafter ties are connected to the sides of the rafters where they rest on the top plate to provide restraint from the end thrust of the rafters...

Rafter Tail

That part of a rafter which extends beyond it bearing at the top plate of the wall past the outside face of a wall.